ar-1*, themat. (a)re-, heavy basis arǝ-, rē- and i-basis (a)rī̆ -, rēi-
- ar-1*, themat. (a)re-, heavy basis arǝ-, rē- and i-basis (a)rī̆ -, rēi-English meaning: to move, passDeutsche Übersetzung: “fũgen, passen”Note: Root ar-1*, themat. (a)re-, heavy basis arǝ-, rē- and i-Basis (a)rī̆ -, rēi- : “to move, pass” and Root er-3 : or- : r- : “to move *stir, animate, fight, struggle, rise; to spring up, be born” derived from the same root Root er-1, or- : “eagle”.Material: *) E.-M. 74 determine because of Arm. eri “ horse’s hock or point of shoulder, shoulder of animals “, y-eriurel “ fit; blend in; fit on; suit; adapt; key; tune; adjust; accommodate; readjust; bring into line; mate “ posit a basic form *er- . But Arm. eri derives after Liden Mé l. Pedersen 88 f. back to IE *rēito-, *rēiti ! compare Trautmann 242.-------Av. arünte “ they settle, get stuck “, O.Ind. ará-ḥ “ wheel spoke “, aram, álam adv. (áraṃkar-, alaṃkar “ prepare; get ready; make up; get up; dress; trim; prink “ and “ be in service; serve; do one’s service; accommodate; be of service; be of help; be of use “, for what probably аrа-tí- “ servant; manservant; valet; servitor; follower “ and rü-tí- “ willing; eager; prompt; ungrudging; unhesitating “, Av. rüiti “ compliant, servant “) “ suitable, enough “; Av. arǝm “ suitable, accordingly “ (arǝ̄ m-piϑwü “ midday “ = “ the time suitable for the meal “, next to which ra-piϑwü ds. With zero grade ra- besides *ara-, from what arǝm adv., Bartholomae AIran. Wb. 189, 1509), ratu- m., “ judge, arbitrator “ and “ period (of time) “ (common primary meaning possibly “ the act of arranging something (neatly) “, from which “ the act of arranging the law “ and “ right time “); O.Ind. ar-p-áyati “ puts, fixed, clamps, cleats, affixes, appends, fastens, fixates, fortifies”; about Hitt. ḫar-ap- (ḫarp-) “ to arrange, situate, put down “? compare Couvreur Ḫ 114 f.; Arm. aṙnem “ produce; do; make; cook; render; cause; proffer; offer; hold out; volunteer; give; contract; fix; put; matter; get; have; take; win; pull down; put down “, y-ar “ , I consent, conjoin, continue, press so “ (arar “ has done, has made “ = Gk. ἄραρε), whereof yarem “ add, subjoin, splice “ (Bugge KZ. 32, 21), č̣ar “ bad; poor; unsavory; unsavoury; poorly; inferior; unsatisfactory; low; stale; foul; hard; lamentable; decayed; wrong; faulty; amiss; maladjusted; uneasy; evil; unkind; wicked; corrupt; off; unhealthy; chronic; ill; sick “ with negative č̣ [= oč̣ ] “ not suitable “ (Bugge aaO. 23); Gk. ἀραρίσκω, perf. ἄρᾱρα “ join together “, ἄρμενος “ annexed, appended, attached, appendaged, suitable “, ὄαρ “ wife “ (probably after Brugmann IF. 28, 293, Schwyzer Gk. I 434 here with prefix *o-, barely to root*ser- or root *u̯er-, ἀ-Fείρω); in addition ὀαρίζω “ have close relations with “; also “ chats confidentially “; χαλκο-άρας “ ironclad, armoured “, also χερι-άρας τέκτων Pind., ἄρ-θρον “ limb, member, joint (wrist, ankle) “, ἀρθμός “ connection; connexion; contact; touch; liaison; tie; splice; affiliation; junction; conjunction; coupling; communication; link-up; interconnection; link; line; combination; association; incorporation; compound; relation; relationship; marriage; wedding; society; union; juncture, friendship “, ἄρθμιος “ joins, unites, unifies, combines, conjunct, collective “; with t- suffixes homer. δάμ-αρ-τ- “ housewife “ (“ the woman in charge of the house “), Eol. δόμορτις Hes.; πυλάρτης “ Hades as the one who locks the gate(s) to the underworld “ (Schwyzer Gk. I 451, 5); ἀρε- in ἀρέσκω “ even out, ease, reconcile, settle, redress, compensate for, equalize, balance, make up for, make good, give satisfaction “, ἀρέσκει μοι “ It suits me, I like it “, ἀρέσκεσθαι, ἀρέσσασθαι “ come to an agreement, come to an agreement with somebody; make oneself inclined, reconcile “, common Gk.-Illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation; ἀρετή “ ability; competence; efficiency “, ἀρείων “ better “ (in respect probably stands ἀρι- “ very much, very “ in compounds, wherewith Reuter KZ. 31, 594a 1 also O.Ind. ari-gūrtá -, - ṣ̌tutá- as “ keenly praised “ would like to compare; uncertain because of Gk. ἐρι- “ very much, very “ see Boisacq s. v., above S. 24 Anm.); ἄριστος “ better, best “, ἀριστερός “ left, on the left “. With lengthening θυμ-ήρης “ appealing well, complacent “, ὅμηρος “ husband; hostage, pledge “, ὁμηρέω “ to meet “; after Birt Philol. 87, 376 f. was ῎Ομηρος lit. “ companion, the blind person who goes with his leader “. From Slav. perhaps Pol. ko-jarzyć “ attach, connect, combine “ (e.g. Miklosich EWb. 100, Berneker 31, 532). About maybe related Gk. ἄρα, Lith. ir̃ s. 4. ar “ now, thus “. Toch. A ürwar, В ürwer, ürwar “ ready “, А аräm, В ere “ face “ (compare Lat. figura “a form, shape, figure”). Van Windekens BAL.-SLAV. 41, 56, Duchesne-Guillemin in the same place 173. t-formations: r̥t-, art- “ joint together “. O.Ind. r̥tá- n. “ suitable, right “, r̥tám n. “ well attached, holy order “ (to meaning see Oldenberg GGN. 1915, 167-180; not “ sacrifice; victim; oblation; offering “), r̥tēna “ rite “, Av. arǝta-, ǝrǝta- n., O.Pers. arta- (in compound) “ law, right, holy right “; Av. aša- under, “ what is sure, true “, O.Ind. r̥tüvan(t)- “ proper, fair “, Av. ašü̆ van/t/-; O.Ind. r̥tú-ḥ “ certain time, order, rule “, r̥tí-ḥ f. “ kind, way “ (to ours root after Kluge PBrB. 9, 193; see also Meringer IF. 17, 125, B. Geiger WZKM. 41, 107), Av. aipi-ǝrǝta- “ appoints, destines, firmly assigned “; Arm. ard, gen. -u (= Gk. ἀρτύς, Lat. artus, -ūs, compare also on top O.Ind. r̥tú-ḥ) “ structure, construction, ornament “ (Hũbschmann Arm. Gk. I 423, Bugge KZ. 32, 3), z-ard “apparatus, ornament “; ard “ just now, now, currently “ (= Gk. ἄρτι) (Bartholomae Stud. II 23, Bugge aaO., Meillet Esquisse 36), ardar “ fair, just, right “ (Hũbschmann Arm. stem I 21, Arm. Gk. I 423; Persson Beitr. 636 a 2 considers for it also IE dh; compare Av. arǝdra- “ faithful, reliably, loyal to belief, pious, godly “ and the other undermentioned dh- derivatives), ardiun ‘struttura (Pedersen KZ. 40, 210); Gk. ἁμαρτή “(at the same time) simultaneous “ (instr. *ἁμ-αρτός “ joint together, concurring, coincidental “), ὁμ-αρτέω “ connect oneself to somebody, accompany “ (due to *ὅμ-αρτος); ti-stem in ἀρτι-Fεπής (“well versed in word structure “), ἀρτί-πο(υ)ς “ with healthy feet “, ἀρτί-φρων “ able-minded, with sharp mind, with a sturdy mind “ (presumably also in ἄρταμος “ butcher, slaughterer; murderer “, whereof ἀρταμέω “ slaughter, cut up, divide “, after J. Schmidt Krit. 83 f. from *ἀρτι- or at most *ἀρτοταμος “ workmanlike cutting “, compare O.Ind. r̥ta-nī- “ justly leading “, r̥ta-yuj “ properly harnessed “); Maybe in u- grade Alb. urtë “ able-minded, with sharp mind, with a sturdy mind “ probably also ἀρτεμής “ fresh and healthy “, probably dissimilated from *ἀρτι-δεμής to δέμας “ with a well-built body “; ἄρτι “ just “ of the present and the most recent past (compare above Arm. ard “ just now, now “ and ard-a-cin “ newborn “ as Gk. ἀρτι-γενής; morphologically not yet quite clear, perhaps Locative); ἀπ-αρτί “ exact, just “, ἄρτιος “ adequate, just, complete “, ἀρτιάζω “ plays rightly or oddly “, ἀρτίζω “ finishes, prepares “, ἄρσιον δίκαιον Hes., ἀνάρσιος “ hostile “, ἐπαρτής “ prepares “; ἀρτύν φιλίαν καὶ σύμβασιν, ἀρτύς σύνταξις (= Lat. artus “narrow, tight”) Hes., ἀρτύω, ἀρτύνω “ joins, prepares “, ἀρτύ̄νας, ἄρτῡνος, ἀρτῡτήρ title of a public servant or official of Argos, Epidauros, Thera. Lat. artus “ narrow, tight (in space and time), close; ‘somnus”, fast, sound; of supplies, small, meager; of circumstances, difficult, distressing “ (adv. artē, originally instrumental as ἁμαρτή); ars, -tis “ skill, method, technique; “ex arte”, according to the rules of art. (2) an occupation, professIon. (3) concrete, in plur., works of art. (4) conduct, character, method of acting; “bonae artes”, good qualities “ (actually “ articulation, assemblage, pack a gift properly “ = M.H.G. art), in addition the compounds in-ers “ unsophisticated, sluggish, untrained, unskillful; inactive, lazy, idle, calm; cowardly; ineffective, dull, insipid “, soll-ers “ clever, skilful “, allers, alers “ taught, learned “; artiō, -ire “ insert tightly, wedge, crowd, join fast, press together “ (more recently artüre); artus, -ūs “ the joints; “dolor artuum”, gout; poet., limbs “, articulus “ in the body, a small joint; in plants, a knob, knot; of time, a moment, crisis; in gen., a part, division, point “; Lith. artì “ near “ (loc. ti-stem); M.H.G. art f. “ kind, manner and way “, O.N. ein-arđr “ simple, sincere”, einǫrd “ reliability; dependability; trustworthiness; sureness; steadiness “; Toch. В ar(t)kye “ rich, valuabe “ (?). m-formations: A. From the light basis ar-. Arm. y-armar “ suitable, adequate “ (Bugge KZ. 32, 21); Gk. ἁρμός “ seam, assemblage, joint “, ἁρμοῖ “ just, recently “ (ἁρμόζω “ connect, join, adapts, orders “, ἁρμονία “ connection, alliance, regularity, harmony “), ἅρμα “ chariot “ (about these words see Sommer Gk. Lautst. 133, Meillet BAL.-SLAV. 28, c.-r. 21 f. [*arsmo- ?], Schwyzer Gk. I 306; farther Lith. by Boisacq 79), ἁρμαλιά “ assigned food, provisions “; Lat. arma, -ōrum “ defensive arms, armor, weapons of war; hence war, soldiers, military power; protection, defense;in gen. tools, equipment “, armentum “ herd of horses or cattle, cattle for plowing “. Hence sounds in O.N. jǫrmuni “ bovine animal, horse “ and the PN Goth. *Aírmana-reiks, O.E. Eormenrīc, O.Ice. Jǫrmunrekr, M.H.G. Ermenrīch; the same first part to the name from a little bit big also e.g. in Ermunduri “ great Thuringia “, O.N. jǫrmungrund “ the wide earth “ = O.E. eormengrund, O.H.G. irmindeot, O.S. Irmin-sūl, and in the short form Herminones. However, Brũckner KZ. 45, 107 rightly challenges, that “ cattle, horses “ is the original and “ large “ out of it derived meaning and decides vice versa for “ large, serene” a starting point because of Slav. raměnъ “ immense, strong, violent, sudden “ (from here Lith. er̃mas “ immense , monstrous “, Ltv. ęr̃ms “ monkey, clown, strange appearance “?), as “ shot up “ to *er-, *or- (orior etc; compare formal ὄρμενος), not as “ sturdy, stout, well built, massive “ belongs to *ar- “ to join, connect “. O.C.S. jarьmъ “ yoke “ (e.g. Miklosich EWb. 100, Berneker 31), Sloven. jérmen “ yoke strap, strap “; with zero grade initial sound and themat. vowel: O.C.S. remenь, Serb. rè́mēn etc “ strap “; Specht Decl. 149 f. Toch. В yarm, AB yärm “ measure “. В. From the heavy base аrǝ-mo-: r̥̄-mo- “ arm “. O.Ind. īrmá -ḥ “arm, shoulder” (originally “ shoulder joint “, compare ἄρθρον, Lat. artus “joints”) = Av. аrǝmа- “ arm “, Osset. ärm “ cupped hand “, älm-ärị n, ärm-ärị n “ elbow “, Lat. armus “ shoulder or shoulder-blade; also, of an animal, the side, the uppermost part of the upper arm, scapula “ (from *ar/ǝ/mos), Gaul. aramō “ bifurcation, point of separation “, (Wartburg I 119, Jud by Howald-Меуеr Röm. Schweiz 374 ff.), O.Pruss. irmo f. “ arm “, Lith. ìrmėdė (“gout “, i.e.:) “ gout in the joints “, irm-liga “ gout, arthritis “ (see Trautmann O.Pruss. 347); zero grade Lith. žem. pl. tant. armaĩ “ Vorderarm am Wagen “ (ibd.), O.C.S. ramo, ramę, Serb. rà́me ‘shoulder”, Goth. arms, O.H.G. etc arm “ arm “, аrm. armukn “ elbow “ (Hũbschmann Arm. Stud. I 21). Root form rē-, rǝ-: Lat. reor, rērī “ to think, suppose, judge “ (the most primitive metering and counting is accompanied by the putting on top of each other or layers of the pieces to be counted), participle ratus “ in the opinion, sense “, but also “ determined, settled; calculated, certain, valid, legal “, ratiō “ a reckoning, account, consideration, calculation; a reason, motive, ground; a plan, scheme, system; reasonableness, method, order; a theory, doctrine, science; the reasoning faculty “; after EM. 793 here (prō)portiō from portiōne =prō ratiōne; Goth. *garaÞjan (only participle garaÞana) “ to count “, O.N. hundrađ, Ger. Hundert (*rađa n. “ number “ = Lat. růtum “to ratify, confirm, make valid”; s. Fick III4 336); O.H.G. girad “ even (only from numbers) “, Ger. gerad (only from numbers divisible by 2; different from gerad = straight ahead), with new ablaut O.N. tī-rø̄ đr actually “ count after tens “ (Fick III4 336); Goth. raÞjō “ number, bill, account “, O.S. rethia “ account “, O.H.G. radja, redea “ account, speech and answer, story “, O.Fris. birethia “ accuse “, O.S. rethiōn, O.H.G. red(i)ōn “ talk “ (determines the precise correspondence from raÞjō with Lat. ratio “a reckoning, numbering, casting up, account, calculation, computation” e.g. Kluge11 s. v. “ speech “ to the assumption of borrowing Gmc. words under influence from garaÞian; more properly Falk-Torp 886 raÞjō to determine as primary -i̯ōn-derivative from Gmc. root *raÞ- [garaÞjan] ). Whether here also O.N. rǫđ “ row, line, series, chain, range, string, tier, battery, file, turn, run, procession, rank, order, progression, number, set, bank, esp. increment lining along the shore “, M.L.G. rat f. “ row, line, series, chain, range, string, tier, battery, file, turn, run, procession, rank, order, progression, number, set, bank “? (Fick III4 337; “ row; line; series; chain; range; string; tier; battery; file; turn; run; procession; rank; order; progression; number; set; bank “ as “ added on each other, stratified “?). O.H.G. rümen “ strive for something, strive, aim “, O.S. rōmon ‘strive “, M.H.G. M.L.G. rüm “ aim, purpose, target “ our *rē-maybe suit as “ to arrange in one’s mind, calculate “, if, besides, this (the previous newer proves) Subst. rüm must have been as formation with formants-mo- starting point. dh-extension rē-dh-, rō-dh-, rǝ-dh-: O.Ind. rüdhnṓ ti, rǘ dhyati “ prepares (suitably), manages; gets, succeeds, with which has luck; contents, wins somebody “, rüdhayati “ manages, gives satisfaction “, rüdha-ḥ m., rüdhaḥ n. “ blessing, success, relief, gift, generosity “; Maybe Alb. radha “row”, radhit “count”. Av. rüδaiti “ makes ready “, rüδa- m. “ social welfare worker “, rüdah- n. “ appropriate for oneself, making oneself available, willingness (in religious regard) “, O.Pers. rüdiy (loc. sg.) “ weigh “ (compare O.C.S. radi see under), Pers. ürüyad, ürüstan “ decorate; adorn; bedeck; trim; attire; array; drape; gild; emblazon; embellish “; O.Ir. imm-rüdim “ considers, thinks over “, аcуmr. amraud “ suppose, think, mean “, Welsh amrawdd “ conversation “ with ders. meaning as O.Ir. no-rüidiu, no-rüdim “ says, tells “, M.Welsh adrawd “ tell “ and Goth. rōdjan, O.N. rø̄ đa “ talk “ (compare further also placed above Ger. Rede, reden; no-rüidiu and rōdjan, like sl. raditi, kaus.-iter. *rōdhei̯ ō ); Goth. garēdan “ whereupon be judicious, take precautions “, urrēdan “ judge, determine “ (compare to meaning esp. Lat. rērī), undrēdan “ procure, grant “, O.H.G. rütan “ advise, confer, contemplate, plan, incite, indicate (riddle), request, to look after something, procure, provide, get “, O.S. rüdan , O.N. rüđa, O.E. rǣ dan (latter also “ read “, Eng. read), Subst. O.H.G. rüt m. “ available means, council, piece of advice, advisement, decision, intention, precaution, stock, supply “, similarly O.S. rüd, O.N. rüd, O.E. rǣ d; O.C.S. raditi “ take care; be accustomed; look after; care for; be in the habit; tend; provide; supply; cater; fend; ensure; insure “ (Serb. râdîm, ráditi “ work, strive “, rad “ business, work “; see Uhlenbeck KZ. 40, 558 f.), radi “ weigh “, next to which *rǝdh- in O.C.S. nerodъ “ neglect (of duty?) “, Sloven. rod̨́ im, rǫd́ iti “ provide, take care “. Maybe O.C.S. radi “ weigh “ : Alb.Gheg randë “heavy (*work?), sth that weighs a lot” ra aor. “fall (sth heavy, weighty)” [nasalized form], randonj “weigh”, re “care, attention”, roje “guard” [common Alb. -d- > -j- shift between two vowels], ruanj “to guard”. Root form (a)rī̆ -, rēi- (see Person root extension 102, 162, 232; Beitr. 741): Gk. ἀραρίσκω (if not neologism, see above S. 56), ἀριθμός “number”, νήριτος “ countless “, arkad. ἐπάριτος “ἐπίλεκτος, select; choice; exquisite “, ἀριμάζει ἁρμόζει Hes.; Lat. rītus, -ūs “ conventional kind of the religion practise, usage, ceremony, rite, manner “, rīte “ in due form, after the right religious use, with proper ceremonies, properly, fitly, rightly “ (loc. one beside rī-tu-s lying conservative stem *rī-t-); O.Ir. rīm “number”, üram (*ad-ri-mü) ds., do-rīmu “ counts “, Welsh rhif “number”, O.N. rīm n. “ reckoning, calculation “, O.S. unrīm “ immense number” “, O.E. rīm n. “number”, O.H.G. rīm m. “ row, order, number “ (the meaning “ verse, rhyme “ from O.N. and M.H.G. rīm probably after Kluge10 s. v. Reim from Fr. rime, which has derived from rythmus). Maybe also *rēi- “ thing “ (Lat. rēs “a thing, object, matter, affair, circumstance” etc) after Wood ax 226 must be added as root noun meaning “ stacked up goods, piled-up possessions “. Maybe is to be added also *rēi- “ thing “ (Lat. rēs etc.) to Wood ax 226 as a root noun meaning “ having stacked up property “. In addition probably as dh-extension rēi-dh- (compare above rē-dh- besides rē-): Goth. garaiÞs “ arranged, certain “, raidjan, garaidjan “ prescribe, determine “, O.N. greiđr “ ready, easy, clear “, greiđa “ disentangle, order, arrange, manage, pay, disburse, remit “, M.H.G. reiten “ get everything set up, prepare, arrange, count, calculate, pay “, reite, gereite, bereite, O.H.G. bireiti “ ready “, antreitī “ series, ordo “, Ltv. riedu, rizt “ order “, raids “ raring, ready “, ridi, ridas “ device, clamp “. Quite doubtfully is not borrowed by Persson aaO. considered affiliation from O.C.S. orądije “ apparatus, instrumentum “ (from O.H.G. ürunti “ message “, see Pedersen concentration camp. 38, 310), rędъ “order”, Lith. rínda “ row “, Ltv. riñda “ row, number “. On condition of that these continue IE d, not dh (*re-n-d-), one adds (e.g. Fick I4 527, Pedersen aaO., see also EM. 711) thus the following kin in: ὀρδέω “ put on a fabric “, ὀρδικόν τὸν χιτωνίσκον. Πάριοι, ὄρδημα ἡ τολύπη τῶν ἐρίων Hes., Lat. ōrdior, -īrī, ōrsus sum (from weaver’s language, Bréal MSL . 5, 440) “ to begin a web, lay the warp, begin, commence, make a beginning, set about, undertake “, exōrdior “ to begin a web, lay the warp, prepare to weave “, redōrdior “ to take apart, unweave, unravel “, ōrdo, -inis “a series, line, row, order” (also Umbr. urnasier seems to be = ordinariis “of order, usual, regular, ordinary”, Linde Glotta 3, 170 f.; differently Gl. 5, 316), the connection agrees with ar- “put; place; fix; formulate; ordain; decree”, which would have been needed then also by the weaving mill, to (Persson root extension 26, Thurneysen Thes. under artus, -ūs), so would be justified vowel from *or-d-ei̯ō as a causative iterative vocalism. Is even more doubtful, from after Reichelt KZ. 46, 318 as k-extensions of the bases arǝ-, ar- with the same application to the weaving mill are to be added: Maybe Alb. (*arünea) arnoj “to repair, mend, sew, weave”, arnë “patch, piece of fabric” from Lat. arünea, -eus “ spider “? Gk. ἀράχνη “ spider “, Lat. arüneus “ of a spider; n. as subst. a cobweb “, arünea, -eus “ spider “ (*arǝ-k-snü; the word ending to *snē- “ to spin; weave, interweave, produce by spinning “ as “ a net spinner, a woman, a girl (or a spider) that spins a net “?); supposedly in addition (Walter KZ. 12, 377, Curtius KZ. 13, 398) Gk. ἄρκυς “ net “, ἀρκάνη τὸ ῥάμμα ᾡ τὸν στήμονα ἐγκαταπλέκουσιναἱ διαζόμεναι Hes. (see also Boisacq 79), wherefore after Bezzenberger BB. 21, 295 Ltv. er”kuls “ spindle; a bunch of oakum, a wad of oakum (for spinning)” (which can stand for *arkuls). Lidén IF . 18, 507 f. puts it better ἄρκυς to Slav. *orkyta, Serb. ràkita “ red pasture “ and Ltv. ẽrcis, Gk. ἄρκευθος “ juniper “ as shrubs with branches usable against lichen.References: WP. I 69 ff., WH. I 69, 70, Trautmann 13 f.See also: S. unten arqu- and erk-.
Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.